P2000.
Occasional Reports, Notes and Commentaries on the Road to the White House
Candidates Engaged in Many Debates But Relatively Few People Watched
 by Eric M. Appleman
Back
Each presidential cycle there tends to emerge, instead of a systematic series of primary debates, a hodgepodge of proposals put forth by various news organizations and other entities from which individual candidates pick and choose.  The 2000 cycle was no different.  For example, in an October 19, 1999 release, Gore campaign press secretary Kiki Moore noted  that the two Democratic campaigns had been offered "more than 40 debate and forum opportunities, many beginning immediately."

Gore and Bradley did not engage in forty debates and forums, but citizens interested in viewing the Republican or Democratic candidates in face to face encounters had plenty of opportunities.  All told the candidates participated in 22 televised debates/head-to-head forums (13 Republican and 9 Democratic events) stretching from Oct. 22, 1999 to March 2, 2000.
Major Candidate Forums
Republicans
New Hampshire
Oct. 22, 1999
The New Hampshire Primary Debate Partnership--NHPTV, NECN and the Union Leader. "Republican Presidential Forum" at NHPTV in Durham, NH   Oct. 22, 1999.
New Hampshire
Oct. 28, 1999
WMUR-TV and CNN. "First in the Nation: A New Hampshire Town Meeting" (Republicans) at Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH   Oct. 28, 1999.
Arizona
Nov. 21, 1999
Arizona Republican Party and the Associated Students of ASU. Republican debate at ASU in Tempe, AZ   Nov. 21, 1999.
New Hampshire
Dec. 2, 1999
WMUR-TV and FOX News Channel. "The Republicans: A New Hampshire Forum" at WMUR-TV in Manchester, NH   Dec. 2, 1999.
Arizona
Dec. 6, 1999
Arizona Republican Party and CNN. "CNN Election 2000 Special: The Arizona Republican Primary Debate" at the Orpheum Theatre in Phoenix, AZ   Dec. 6, 1999.
Iowa
Dec. 13, 1999
WHO-TV. "The Iowa Debate" at the Civic Center in Des Moines, IA   Dec. 13, 1999.
New Hampshire
Jan. 6, 2000
The New Hampshire Primary Debate Partnership--NHPTV, NECN and the Union Leader. "NH Republican Primary Debate" at UNH in Durham, NH    Jan. 6, 2000.
South Carolina
Jan. 7, 2000
South Carolina Republican Party (broadcast by WIS-TV and MSNBC). Republican debate.
Michigan
Jan. 10, 2000
Michigan Republican Party, Calvin College, WOOD TV-8 (NBC) and Kent County Republican Committee. Republican debate at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, MI.
Iowa
Jan. 15, 2000
Des Moines Register "Des Moines Register Presidential Candidates Debate" (Republicans) at IPTV in Johnston, IA.
New Hampshire
Jan. 26, 2000
WMUR-TV and CNN. "First in the Nation: The New Hampshire Debates"--Republicans at WMUR-TV in Manchester, NH.
South Carolina
Feb. 15, 2000
South Carolina Business and Industry Political Education Committee (BIPEC) and CNN. Republican presidential debate at Seawells in Columbia, SC.
California
March 2, 2000
Los Angeles Times and CNN. "Los Angeles Times/CNN Presidential Debates"--Republicans at the L.A. Times building in Los Angeles, CA.

Democrats
New Hampshire
Oct. 27, 1999
WMUR-TV and CNN.  "First in the Nation: A New Hampshire Town Meeting" (Democrats) at Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH.
New Hampshire
Dec. 17, 1999
ABC "Nightline." Democratic town hall meeting at Daniel Webster College in Nashua, NH.
Washington,DC
Dec. 19, 1999
NBC "Meet the Press." Democratic debate at NBC in Washington, DC.
New Hampshire
Jan. 5, 2000
The New Hampshire Primary Debate Partnership--NHPTV, NECN and the Union Leader. "NH Democratic Primary Debate" at UNH in Durham, NH.
Iowa
Jan. 8, 2000
Des Moines Register "Des Moines Register Presidential Candidates Debate" (Democrats) at IPTV in Johnston, IA.
Iowa
Jan. 17, 2000
The Brown & Black Forum (group chaired by State Rep. Wayne Ford and Ila Plasencia). "Iowa Brown & Black Presidential Forum" in Des Moines, IA.
New Hampshire
Jan. 26, 2000
WMUR-TV and CNN. "First in the Nation: The New Hampshire Debates"--Democrats at WMUR-TV in Manchester, NH.
New York
Feb. 21, 2000
Time and CNN. Democratic debate at Apollo Theater in Harlem, NY.
California
March 1, 2000
Los Angeles Times and CNN. "Los Angeles Times/CNN Presidential Debates"--Democrats at the L.A. Times building in Los Angeles, CA.

Debates and forums rarely prove decisive, but they do offer voters a good chance to compare the candidates.  Because many of the primary forums and debates are televised nationally, particularly by CNN and C-SPAN, they have the potential of reaching a fairly wide audience.  However, viewership tends to be small. 

Tactical Back and Forth
Primary debates offer many opportunities for tactical back and forth among the candidates.  Announcing his campaign shake-up in late September of 1999 Vice President Al Gore challenged opponent Bill Bradley "to a series of debates on specific issues--a lot of them."  Gore said such debates would "breath new life into our democracy."  Bradley declined to take Gore up on his offer.  On the Republican side, back on June 14, Steve Forbes sent a letter to the GOP frontrunner Texas Gov. George W. Bush proposing a series of five debates.  Forbes did not receive a response.  When Sen. John McCain emerged as a serious challenger in February, he sought one-on-one debates with Bush.  Bush did not agree to McCain's offer. 

A strong frontrunner may choose to duck all but a few forums.  If a frontrunner chooses to skip a debate there may then be a cascade effect, as other leading challengers forego the event, leaving second tier candidates to debate amongst themselves. To his credit, after initially refusing to participate in some forums, Bush did end up participating in many debates.  He may end up as a better candidate for the experience, for the fall debates will require a solid performance.  Thus there are instances where some candidates decline or are unable to participate in a debate; there are also usually some lesser known candidates who want to participate but are not invited.  These longshot candidates may raise a hue and cry, but to no avail.

Substantive Exchanges or Packaged Events
Organizing a debate to facilitate substantive exchanges between the candidates can be a challenge.  In the first part of 1999 it looked as if there could be ten or so GOP candidates; the fact that the Republican field thinned with the departures of Rep. John Kasich, Sen. Bob Smith, former governor Lamar Alexander, former Vice President Dan Quayle, Elizabeth Dole and Pat Buchanan made the job easier for debate planners even as it deprived voters of those viewpoints. 

How informative a debate or forum is depends on which candidates are invited, which candidates choose to attend, and very importantly, the format.  In a May 1999 letter > former Speaker Newt Gingrich put a proposal on the table, suggesting  that Republican hopefuls engage in forums "based on the Lincoln-Douglas debates in which serious people make thoughtful remarks about important topics."  The idea of having a debates focused on a specific subject areas is also worthwhile as it allows candidates to get deeper into specific issues.  Gore and Bradley did discuss issues of concern to minorities at the Iowa Brown & Black Presidential Forum" held in Des Moines on  Jan. 17, 2000, but several other proposals for more focused debates fell through.2

Whether the standard of the Lincoln-Douglas debates can be achieved in the television era is uncertain, but organizers can learn from many past debates.  One network-sponsored debate in 1992 resembled a game show, with the candidates in corrals and the anchor acting as host.  Other debates or forums have been badly chopped up with advertising breaks.  Another problem can be inadequate time for candidate responses.
 

Notes
1. For example, WNDS and New Hampshire Citizens for a Sound Economy held a "New Hampshire Voter Town Meeting" at WNDS in Derry on Oct. 21, 1999 which only drew Bauer and Keyes. >

2. For example, (a) the Iowa Farmers Union, > and the Center for Rural Affairs proposed a Democratic debate on family farm and rural community issues at Iowa State University in Ames for Dec. 22, 1999. [only Gore participated]; (b)The Gazette (Cedar Rapids), Iowa Farmer Today, KCRG, League of Conservation Voters Education Fund, Izaak Walton League of America proposed ACE Debates (Agriculture, Conservation, Energy/Environment) with the Republicans to be held on Jan. 10, 2000 and the Democrats on Jan. 12, 2000. [Gore].

Initially posted Oct. 6, 1999 last updated March 24, 2000.

Copyright 1999, 2000  Eric M. Appleman/Democracy in Action.
 

亚洲日韩色欧另类欧美_波多野结衣家庭教师_国语自产拍在线视频中文