New Hampshire Print
     
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Campaigns, interest groups, individuals and news organizations all flocked to run ads in New Hampshire's largest newspaper, the Manchester Union Leader, in advance of the Feb. 1, 2000 presidential primary. Newspapers are only one part of the media mix, and as can be seen below, some campaigns used this medium more than others.  Many campaign professionals believe that television is more effective and essential to a credible campaign; given limited resources this may be one reason why some of the campaigns opted not to advertise in the Union Leader.  The paper also has a conservative reputation which may have deterred others.  Print, being more affordable, does allows obscure candidates and causes to advertise.  An eclectic mix of individuals and entities took advantage of small ads to express their views.1  Advertisers with more resources used print ads to reinforce broadcast ad campaigns.  Finally, in addition to focusing on issues and positions, newspaper ads are an effective way to promote upcoming events or programs.
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Specific Findings
In the Manchester Union Leader during two-week period from Wednesday Jan. 19 to Tuesday Feb. 1:

Note.
1. The distinction between "individuals" and "groups" proved to be the most difficult coding decision as some examples will illustrate.  A full page ad on Jan. 31 by Dennis Lynch, chair of the Catholic Alliance, notes that it is paid for by him personally but has the organization's web site address.  (Coded as individual).  On Jan. 29 something called the "Pro Tem Committee for Decency in Government" ran a small ad condemning several of the candidates for promoting policies that encourage homosexual conduct.  (Coded as individual). Finally, Foundation for Accuracy/Paul C. Fisher ran a rather philosophical ad a couple of times.  (Coded as individual).  For the purposes of this study, "group" means that an established, known organization has paid for the ad.

Week 0: Wednesday Jan. 26 to Tuesday Feb. 1, 2000
For the final seven days of the campaign a total of fifty-seven primary-related ads were found in the Union Leader. The number of ads peaked at fifteen on Jan. 31, the day before the primary.  Eighteen of the fifty-seven ads were full page, including six Forbes ads, three Keyes ads and four ads for voter.com.  Fourteen of the fifty-seven ads were smaller than a quarter page; mostly ads by individuals, a minor candidate, and promos.
Candidate: Four candidates ran a total of twenty-four ads (42% of the total): 
 10 Keyes (3 full-page ads, 2 half-page ads and 5 quarter-page ads promoting a rally); 
 7 Forbes (6 full-page ads and one small promo ad); 
 2 Bush (half-page ads); 
 5 O'Donnell [Edward T. O'Donnell, Jr. of Wilmington, DE, a pro-life Dem. candidate] (smaller ads). 
Group: Eight groups ran a total of thirteen ads (23% of the total): 
AARP/VOTE (1); American Cancer Society (4); American Medical Association (1); The Concord Coalition (1); The Institute for SocioEconomic Studies (1); The Interfaith Alliance (1); National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) New Hampshire (3); Save America's Forests (1).
Media: Five news organizations ran a total of eight ads (14% of the total):
C-SPAN (1); Lifetime: Television for Women (1); voter.com (4 full-page ads); WGIR (1); WNDS (1).
Individual: Seven individuals ran a total of nine ads (16% of the total):
Sandra Abels, Founder U.S. Citizens Against Whaling--against Gore (1); Bill Cashin--for Gore (1); Paul C. Fisher/Foundation for Accuracy--philosophical musings (2); Dennis Lynch (Catholic Alliance)--for Forbes (1); Dan O'Neil--for Gore (2); Pro Tem Committee for Decency in Government--against several (1); Robert G. Yarnall, Sr--for Forbes (1).
Misc: General Mills placed three quarter-page ads to promote its"Flippin' for the Candidates" event.

By comparision, the second biggest New Hampshire paper, the Nashua Telegraph, had only eleven ads during the same time, of which only two were candidate ads.  In the Concord Monitor, three ads were found that did not appear in the Union Leader: a full-page ad on Jan. 31 by Americans with Disabilities for Gore/New Hampshire Citizens for Gore, a quarter page ad on Jan. 30 by McCain promoting a Jan. 31 rally in Concord and a small ad on Jan. 27 promoting a Media Studies Center event.

Total 57
Candidate 24
Group 13
Media  8
Individual  9
Misc.  3

Week 1: Jan. 19 to Jan 25 >

Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2000 -- Primary Day
Total -- 7 ads:
2 Candidate, 0 Group, 4 Media, 1 Individual, 0 Misc.
A5 <1/4 WGIR Action News Network M Primary Night 2000
A7 Full voter.com M Trees. "The decisions haven't gotten any easier.  Participating in them has."
A11 Full Forbes C "The last time We the People made a statement on taxes, history was made."
A13 Full Forbes C (Color) Open Book. "Imagine How Different the country could be if Politics as Usual weren't Politics as Usual"
B10 Full voter.com M KFOR Vehicles. "The decisions haven't gotten any easier.  Participating in them has."
C5 Full voter.com M Refugees crowded in small boat. "The decisions haven't gotten any easier.  Participating in them has."
C14 <1/4 Dan O'Neil I "Dan O'Neil supports Al Gore"

 
Monday, Jan. 31, 2000
Total -- 15 ads:
8 Candidate, 2 Media, 2 Group, 3 Individual, 0 Misc.
A2 1/4 AARP/VOTE G Voter Identification Card.  "You can't buy anything with it.  But what it gives you is priceless."  [urges readers to learn the candidates' positions, vote]
A4 <1/4 Bill Cashin I "Bill Cashin is proud to support Al Gore"
A5 1/4 Keyes Cp "Meet Alan Keyes" promo for Jan. 31 event in Nashua
A7 Full Keyes C "Who do you want debating Al Gore?"
A8 <1/4 Dan O'Neil I "Dan O'Neil supports Al Gore"
A9 Full Dennis Lynch (Chair of Catholic Alliance, Inc) I* "Thank you, Steve" [Catholic issues, Northern Ireland]
A10 1/2 Bush C "Setting the Record Straight"  ["Forbes is trying to do to George W. Bush what he did to Dole."]
A11 Full voter.com M Trees. "The decisions haven't gotten any easier.  Participating in them has."
A12 Full Keyes C "Some of my colleagues would like to debate..."  [sovereignty]
A16 Full Forbes C (Color) Open Book. "Imagine How Different the country could be if Politics as Usual weren't Politics as Usual"
B9 <1/4 WNDS M Primary 2000 Election Night Coverage
B10 <1/4 O'Donnell for President C "If a person makes a decision to love..."
C4 1/2 American Cancer Society G "It's time to ask the presidential candidates..."
C5 Full Forbes C "If a bear sees a pot of honey, it will put its paws on it."
C15 Full Keyes C "When it comes to the income tax,..."
*The Dennis Lynch ad says it is personally paid for by him, but in addition to having his organizational affiliation it has the organization's web site address, so it has definite group overtones.
 
 
Sunday, Jan. 30, 2000 
Total -- 7 ads:
4 Candidate, 2 Group, 0 Media, 1 Individual, 0 Misc.
4A 1/3 Foundation for Accuracy/Paul C. Fisher (Boulder City, NV) I "World Peace and Survival"  [philosophical statement]
8A Full Forbes C Letter to Dear Granite State Friends.  "Your vote on February 1st could change America forever."
11A 1/2 Bush C "Texas, Taxes and You"
8B 1/2 Keyes C "A Perfect Score--Only Alan Keyes Defends Our Constitutional Principles 100%"
11B Full The Interfaith Alliance G Framework of Civility
10E 1/4 Keyes Cp "Meet Alan Keyes" promo for Jan. 31 event in Nashua
9F 1/2 NAMI New Hampshire G "The Surgeon General Has Issued a Call to Action"

 
Saturday, Jan. 29, 2000 
Total -- 5 ads:
2 Candidate, 0 Group, 1 Media, 1 Individual, 1 Misc.
A2 <1/4 Pro Tem Committee for Decency in Government (Woodside, NY) I "Bush, Gore, Bradley, McCain Policies Encourage Homosexual Conduct..."
A3 1/3 General Mills X "Flippin' for the Candidates" promo for Jan. 31 event in Manchester
A9 <1/4 O'Donnell for President C "Jesus Christ..."
A11 1/4 Keyes Cp "Meet Alan Keyes" promo for Jan. 31 event in Nashua
D8 1/4 Lifetime: Television for Women M "Who Wants to be Our President?" promo for Jan. 30 program

 
Friday, Jan. 28, 2000 
Total -- 9 ads:
 4 Candidate, 2 Group, 1 Media, 1 Individual, 1 Misc.
A4 1/4 Keyes Cp "Meet Alan Keyes" promo for Jan. 31 event in Nashua
A5 1/2 Keyes C "A Perfect Score--Only Alan Keyes Defends Our Constitutional Principles 100%"
A10 1/3 Foundation for Accuracy/Paul C. Fisher (Boulder City, NV) I "World Peace and Survival" [philosophical statement]
A11 Full C-SPAN M "On C-SPAN All Politics All Weekend"
A12 Full Forbes C "On closer Inspection" [takes Bush to task on taxes]
A14 1/4 The Institute for SocioEconomic Studies (White Plains, NY) G "Questions to Ask the Candidates"
A14 1/2 American Cancer Society G "It's time to ask the presidential candidates..."
A15 <1/4 O'Donnell for President C economy
C2 1/3 General Mills X "Flippin' for the Candidates" promo for Jan. 31 event in Manchester

 
Thursday, Jan. 27, 2000 
Total -- 7 ads:
 2 Candidate, 4 Group, 0 Media, 0 Individual, 1 Misc.
A10 1/2 NAMI New Hampshire G "The Surgeon General Has Issued a Call to Action"
A13 <1/4 Forbes Cp "North Country Rally Today" promo
A14 <1/4 O'Donnell for President C "The Bible says:..."
A15 Full Save America's Forests (Washington, DC) G "Clearcutting in our National Forests?"
A16 1/2 American Cancer Society G "It's time to ask the presidential candidates..."
A19 Full American Medical Association G "We're driving home the biggest issues any candidate will face this year."  [National House Call Campaign]
C2 1/3 General Mills  X "Flippin' for the Candidates" promo for Jan. 31 event in Manchester

 
Wednesday, Jan. 26, 2000 
Total -- 7 ads:
 2 Candidate, 3 Group, 0 Media, 2 Individual, 0 Misc.
A2 1/4 Keyes Cp "Meet Alan Keyes" promo for Jan. 31 event in Nashua
A3 <1/4 Robert G. Yarnall, Sr I "On November 4th Only Steve Forbes Can win over the 7.5 million Third Party Voters..."
A4 <1/4 O'Donnell for President C "Positions: 1. Guns-..."
A5 1/4 The Concord Coalition G "Key Questions New Hampshire Voters Should Ask Presidential Candidates..."
A8 1/2 NAMI New Hampshire G ""The Surgeon General Has Issued a Call to Action"
A11 <1/4 Sandra Abels, Founder U.S. Citizens Against Whaling I "Al Gore Has Declared War on Whales"
C11 1/2 American Cancer Society G "It's time to ask the presidential candidates..."

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